The Endometriosis – Ovarian Cancer Connection (Part 4)

The basic types of benign and malignant ovarian tumors are described in this blog. Tumors can be solid or cystic and they are also classified as benign (not cancer) and malignant (cancer)

Types of benign ovarian tumors

There are 6 basic types and a total of 23 different kinds of benign ovarian tumors including:

  • Simple Cysts
  • Functional cysts
  • Graafian Follicle Cyst
  • Corpus Luteum Cyst
  • Hemorrhagic Cyst
  • Polycystic ovaries (PCOS)
  • Endometrioma – Endometriosis chocolate cyst
  • Benign epithelial tumors
  • Serous tumors
    • Cystadenoma and papillary cystadenoma
    • Surface papilloma
    • Adenofibroma and cystadenofibroma
  • Mucinous tumors
    • Cystadenoma
    • Adenofibroma and cystadenofibroma
  • Endometrioid
    • Adenoma and cystadenoma
    • Adenofibroma and cystadenofibroma
  • Clear cell adenofibromas – 12 reported cases
  • Benign Brenner Tumors
  • Benign Mixed Epithelial Tumors
  • Benign germ cell tumors
  • Mature cystic teratomas
  • Monodermal teratoma (can be benign or malignant)

Types of carcinomas of low malignant potential (borderline tumors)

There is a total of 15 potential types of borderline tumors, all of which are the epithelial tumors. These tumors are all of the epithelial type ovarian tumor and while not completely benign they are not as aggressive as most ovarian cancers, are not as invasive and have a much better prognosis than typical ovarian cancers.

Types of malignant ovarian tumors

The 3 basic types of malignant ovarian tumors include:

  • Epithelial – 90% of all ovarian cancers
  • Germ cell tumors
  • Sex Cord-stromal cell tumors

The World Health Organization classification system (see next post) describes 14 different types of ovarian tumors with well over 30 different types of ovarian cancer.

I know some of this can get a bit boring, but stick with me as we are laying the framework to understand the difference between a news sound bite and what having endometriosis really means in regards to any increased risk of ovarian cancer.